An overview of modern ways of cleaning from rust and preservation of iron historical artefacts


  • V.S. Ribun Chemical-analytical laboratory of the PJSC "Ukrnafta"
  • I.F. Myronyuk Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University
  • Y. Roshko Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University



corrosion, artefact, protective coating, inhibitor


This overview focused on the recent advances in rust cleaning and conservation of iron-based historical artefacts. Archaeological iron artefacts undergo various forms of corrosion, including soil and atmospheric. In general the main corrosion products are goethite α-FeO​​(OH), acaganeite β-FeO (OH), lepidocrocite γ-FeO (OH), magnetite Fe3O4, siderite FeCO3, vivanite Fe3(PO4)2 ∙ 8H2O, etc. A number factors contribute to the process corrosion, but Cl- anion embedded in the crystal lattice of acagenite is crucial. It has been considered corrosion product removers from the artefact surface, and found out that all of them should contain inhibitors slowing down the interaction of the artefact iron core with acids. Organic acids, in particular citric, maleic and acetic acids are considered to be non-aggressive and environmental-friendly. After removing corrosion product layer, iron historical heritages are affected by atmospheric corrosion thus stabilizing substances and protective coatings must be applied. The most common protectors are tannin-iron complex compounds, which provide an anti-corrosion coatings and prevent further destruction of artefacts. Preservation of iron-based historical artefacts with synthetic polymer waxes, resins and synthetic polymers is thought to be promising.


Philip A. Schweitzer. Fundamentals of Corrosion: Mechanism, Causes, and Preventative Methods (Published by Tailor and Francis Group, LLC, 2010).

Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science and Engineering. (Published by National Academies Press. Washington, D.C.).

M. Jurkama, M. Pandey, P. Angell, D. Munson, CNL Nuclear Review 7(1), 85 (2018);

M.S. Polutrenko, L.Y. Poberezhnyy, L.Y. Stanetskiy, Bull. Of Ternopilj National University 80(4), 34 (2015).

X. Houetal. IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science 108(2), 22 (2018);

K.M. Darian et al., JurnalTeknologi 77(1), 205 (2015);

O.N.Tsybulskaya et el., Bull DVORAN В 2, 62 (2014).

L. Selwyn, Proceedings of Metal 1, 294 (2004).

M.A. Blessa et al., Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 196(1), 31 (2000);

M. Shaheb et al., Applied Geochemistry 25(12), 1937 (2010);

G. Pingitore et al., Journal of Cultural Heritage 16(3), 371 (2015).

F. Mercier-Bion et al., Corrosion Science, 137, 98 (2018);

I.Y. Buravlev et el., Conservation of iron archeological objects. Monograph (M, LLC "Publishing Center RIOR", 2019).

S. Reguer, P. Dillman, F. Mirambet, Corrosion Science 49(6), 2726 (2007);

К. Stahl et al., Corrosion Science 45(11), 2563 (2003);

L.S. Selwyn, P.J. Sirois, V. Arguropoulos, Studies of Conservation 44(4), 217 (1999).

O.M. Lemine, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 32, 1 (2014).

A. Yamamoto, Surface Magnetizm of α – FeO(OH) and β – FeO(OH) by Mossbauer Spectroscopy 63(1), 176 (1994).

Laser Cleaning of Oxidies Metallic Materials role of the optical properties of the oxides films. Proc. SPIE. Laser Techniques and Systems in Art Conversation 4402, 234 (2001).

T. Palomar, Applied Surface Science 387, 118 (2016);

P. Letardi, Corrosion and Conversation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts. Chapter, Electrochemical measurements in the conversation of metallic heritage artefacts: an overview 7, 126 (2013);

C.M. van Genuchten, Electrochimica 286(1), 324 (2018);

L.M.E. Nasanen et al., The Journal of Supercritical significance 79, 289 (2013);

F. Kergourlay et al., Corrosion Science 53(8), 2474 (2011);

S. Grousset et al., Corrosion Science 112, 264 (2016);

E. Rocca et al., Electrochimica Acta 316, 219 (2019);

E. Cano, D. Lafuente, Corrosion and Conversation of cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts. 7 Corrosion inhibitors for the preservation of metallic heritage artefacts 26, 570 (2013);

E. Rocca, F. Mirambet, Corrosion of Metallic Heritage Artefacts, Chaper, Corrosion inhibitors for metallic artifact: temporary protection 18, 308 (2007);

M. Chellouli et al., Electrochimica Acta 204, 50 (2016);

E. Mohammed, M. Keersmaecker, A. Adriaens, Progress in Organic Coatings 101, 225 (2016);

S. Reguer et al., Corrosion Science 51(12), 2795 (2009);

D. Watkinson, M. B. Rimmer. F. Kergouray, Alkaline desalination techniques for arcaeological iron. Corrosion and Conversation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts. Chapter 19, 407 (2013);

L. Ta-Kang, S. Haw-Yang, T. Chung–Ning. Desalination 326, 10 (2013);

D. Ashkenazi, Corrosion Science 123, 88 (2017);

L. Blahova, Journal of Cultural Heritage 42, 28 (2020);

L.M. Abrantes, A.L. Melato, Corrosion and Conversation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts Chapter 23, 518 (2013);

M. Cieslik, ´K. Engvall, J. Pan, A. Kotarba, Corrossion. Science 53, 296 (2011);

C. Liu, Advanced Materials 19, 3783 (2007);

W. Li et al., Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 19, 735 (2010);

H. Ko, European Polymer Journal 68, 36 (2015);



How to Cite

Ribun, V., Myronyuk, I., & Roshko, Y. (2022). An overview of modern ways of cleaning from rust and preservation of iron historical artefacts. Physics and Chemistry of Solid State, 23(2), 195–203.



Scientific articles (Chemistry)