(Un) Critical Pedagogy: Current Priorities and Prospects of Development
The article highlights the relevance of the problems of critical pedagogy, associated with the name of the Brazilian scientist Paulo Freire (60s of the XX century), who promotes problem-oriented learning, anthropological interpretation of culture, and concepts of humanity. The main content of the concept of critical pedagogy is highlighted due to the necessity to overcome stereotypes regarding the organization of pedagogical education and teaching in an educational institution based on oppression, humiliation, and (non) recognition of differences, in particular linguistic and cultural. It has been revealed that followers of Freire’s ideas regarding critical pedagogy emphasize the principles of equality and justice, understanding/acceptance of various issues that are debatable or in need of public criticism (repression and resistance in higher education, teaching, and consumerism, issues of transsexuality and transgenderism, etc.). The author extrapolates the main principles of critical pedagogy to the subject of their use in modern conditions, when slightly different forms of bullying (violence) take place in educational institutions (or outside them) or the virtual world – a negative attitude towards persons with special needs, various types of bullying (physical, social, verbal), cyberbullying, cyber grooming, flaming, harassment, denigration, etc. It is substantiated that various forms of discrimination often arise in the educational setting due to the social or material status of the child's parents, and his/her racial or religious affiliation, that is, they are associated with the rejection of diversity and have an impact on the educational process and personal self-expression in society. The issue of criticality in education must be considered in the modern dimension: in school and student society, teaching and scientific activities, educational management, pedagogical imageology, intercultural education, etc. The theoretical analysis of the content and structure of the concept of “critical pedagogy” was carried out, the necessity to develop students' critical perception of the world, critical thinking, and info media literacy. To motivate young people to search for and acquire new knowledge independently, to be active in applying it in practice, to teach them to criticize and respond adequately to constructive criticism, to draw conclusions and check them, etc. In a practical context, it is recommended to use the improvisation method to develop students’ critical thinking, as well as Problem Based Learning, Project Based Learning, Inquiry Based Learning, Flipped Learning, Interactive or Dialogic Learning, etc.