The Structural Analysis of Medicinal Plants and Their Use to Treat the Gastrointestinal Tract Diseases
Medicinal plants have long been used in the treatment of various diseases and diseases of the digestive system, in particular. They contain almost all biologically active substances, which gives them an advantage over synthetic drugs, and the possibility of long-term use. On the basis of processing of literature sources the systematical and biomorphological analyzes of herbs were carried out. We analyzed the medicinal plants which are used to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including four groups: stomach (atony, achillia, ulcer, gastritis), intestine (enteritis, colitis), liver and gallbladder (hepatitis A, cholangitis, cholecystitis, nausea) and dyspeptic disorders (vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, bloating). Each of these groups of illnesses is characterized by a specific list of medicinal plants with an indication of their life form. 110 species of medicinal plants were identified, which belong to 102 genera, 46 families, 33 orders, 4 classes and 3 divisions. Among studied herbs, the most numerous are herbaceous polycarpics - 60 species (54.55%), while annuals have 21 species (19.01%), trees - 9 species (8.18%), shrubs - 8 species (7.27%), biennials - 7 species (6.36%), semi-shrubs - 4 species (3.64%) and lianas - 1 species (0.91%). The taxonomic and biomorphological structure of the studied plants is presented in general and analyzed in detail in each of the selected groups of diseases. Examples of plants that used in the treatment of various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are given. It was established that for intestinal disease 28 species are used, liver and gallbladder - 47 species, stomach - 60 species and dyspeptic disorders - 75 species of herbs.
The article shows the results of taxonomic and biomorphologic analysis of medicinal plants that are used to treat the gastrointestinal tract diseases are based on literary data.